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Introduction to Skencil How Does Skencil Works?

The present stable release of Skencil software is 0.6.17 and is used for various type of illustration work because it is vector graphics editing software.

We have many tools for doing different types of illustration work, transforming shapes and text, and many other vector art-related terms we can do in this software.

With transformation, we can also do scaling, rotating of all these objects.

We can also do color management tasks, such as you can blend with colors, fill gradient in any artwork, and some other color management-oriented work we can do.

Uses of Skencil

There is much use of skencil in different graphics related field, and as we know, Skencil is a vector graphics editor, so we use it for various types of vector art and editing work.

We can make a different type of art work by using shape tools and typographic by making a different type of transformation in text.

We also use it to export and import different types of file formats to make our work easy in this software.

Features of Skencil

We have many good features of this software, and it is necessary to understand them for getting more knowledge about this software.

The very first features of this software include that it has tools through which we can draw geometrical shapes such as we can draw a rectangle which you can convert into rounded corners rectangle for a different type of illustration work, you can draw circles, ellipse, pie circle by using the same tool for a curve or circular requirement in illustration, you can draw different anchor point curves which is Bezier curves and manipulate it according to work requirement with handling points.

The next important feature of this software is it can write ESP files in it to use this type of file to make our work easy with different features. We can also export and import different file format with an improved version of Skencil. Due to compatibility with the different file format, it makes our vector graphics editing more effective.


Skencil is based on Python, so it can extend in different ways, which starts from user scripts and goes up to plugins.

We have other plugin collections for skencil, such as Christof Ecker’s plugin for skencil, which offers graphs, Turtle Library, Transforms Scripts, and many more things to add new features to this software.

It offers plugins that help in the management of brightness and contrast of art work in this software as well as in the manipulation work of color.

You can increase the range of auto-shapes of this software by adding a plugin that gives you handling points to make changes in these shapes.

It also offers some tools and features through which we can convert text into a curve. You can also align text with your desired path in it.

We have Import Filters through which skencil can read different file formats such as adobe illustrator (.ai), Corel CMX, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and many more. All these file formats related to vector graphics.

Through Export Filters, skencil can write the various graphics format such as adobe illustrator, SVG (scalable vector graphics) and PDF (portable document format) files.

It offers single User account that means you need a different account of multiple user or group users.

Limited features with a free account.

You cannot test templates with a free account.

Currently, it is not supported to Microsoft Windows, but in the unstable release, which is 0.7, it may become with compatibility of Microsoft windows.

We can do text transformation in skencil, but for the proper working of it with the transformed text, you need an X-server capable of scaling and transforming fonts.

The current version of skencil only supports True color visuals, which have depths of 15, 16, 24 or 32 bits and Pesudo Color visuals of 8-bits.


We have analyzed Skencil software with all important aspects of it. Now you can easily go through the pros and cons of this software to identify what good features of it helps you in your vector illustration work are.

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Advantages , Disadvantages And Examples

Definition of Inventories List

The inventories list comprises line-item details of all the items of the stock of the company. It is a technique to have more control over inventory management and helps efficiently utilize the inventory. The list is updated from time to time, the frequency of which is dependent upon the type of the business.


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It provides accurate and readily available stock details, which helps management make decisions and smooth business operations. Suppose the business comprises inventory that moves swiftly. In that case, the inventory should be updated daily, but in case of the slow movement of inventory, the business can update it weekly or monthly.

Examples of Inventories List

Inventory ID



Unit Price in $

Quantity in stock

Inventory Value in $

Reorder level

IN0001 ABC CBA 4.00 50.00 200 30 11

IN0002 DEF FED 2.00 40.00 80 25 3

IN0003 GHI IHG 1.00 100.00 100 70 10

IN0004 JKL LKJ 3.00 120.00 360 70 13

IN0005 MNP PNM 6.00 70.00 420 40 6

IN0006 OQR RQO 8.00 80.00 640 40 6

Components of Inventories List

The components of the inventories list given in the above template are explained below. Though there is no strict format that is followed across the companies, the below components are more or less present in every inventories list:

Inventory ID: It is a unique code assigned to each item in the inventory, which serves as its identifier in the inventory management system.

Name: The field represents the name of the particular inventory item.

Description: Description specifies the details of the inventory item, such as its specifications, color, measurement, etc., which can help in its identification later on.

Unit price: It indicates the purchase price of a particular item per unit basis.

Quantity in stock: The field represents the remaining quantity in the stock. It serves as a basis for reorder level and helps decide when a particular inventory item needs reordered.

Inventory value: This indicates the total value of the inventory in the stock i.e. product of the quantity of an item and its unit price.

Reorder level: If an item reaches the reorder level, the order will be placed with the vendor again. The order is automatically placed at the reorder level if the inventory management system software is in place.

Reorder time in days: This suggests the time lag between the placing of reorder and its physical receipt.

Advantages of Inventories List

Inventories list helps in the controlled management of the inventory.

The list helps track the inventory items in case of return of defective merchandise, multiple suppliers, and impacted items in case of a recall.

It also helps clearly categorize inventory since it contains useful information such as item number, description, etc.

Inventories list helps in the effective utilization of items in stock. Also, it helps in avoiding overstocking positions and shortage conditions.

Nowadays, companies use computer software to manage inventory or prepare inventories list, which is quite expensive, while manual intervention requires a lot of effort and is prone to errors.

Inventories list can be a little complex to be prepared through software, while manually, it can be cumbersome due to a lot of data.


Since inventory is an integral part of every business, an inventory list for managing inventory is also important. An inventory list prepared through inventory management software helps smooth business operations. Though the inventory list is data-intensive and prone to errors in the case of manual intervention, its usefulness overshadows all of its negatives.

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Learn The Examples And Advantages

Introduction to PostgreSQL STRING_AGG()

PostgreSQL supports various kinds of aggregate functions, The STRING_AGG() function is one of the aggregate functions which is used to concatenate the list of strings, and it will add a place to a delimiter symbol or a separator between all of the strings. The separator or a delimiter symbol will not be included at the end of the output string. The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function is supported by PostgreSQL 9.0 version, which performs the aggregate option related to the string. We can use various separators or delimiter symbols to concatenate the strings.

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The STRING_AGG() function takes input ORDER BY clause is an optional and other two arguments as follows:

expression: This is a character string that is any valid expression.

separator/delimiter: This defines the separator/delimiter used for string concatenation.

The ORDER BY clause is optional and defines the order of concatenated string results.

The ORDER BY has the syntax as follows:

How does PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function works?

The input expression needed should be a character string data type. We can also use other data types but only need to ensure that we have explicitly cast other data types to the character string data type.

The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() returns us the result in string type.

The STRING_AGG() is generally used with the GROUP BY clause like we use other PostgreSQL aggregate functions such as MIN(), MAX(), AVG(), SUM(), COUNT(), etc.

Examples to Implement PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function

We will create a table named ‘student’ and ‘course’ by using the CREATE TABLE statement as follows:


create table student ( stud_id serial PRIMARY KEY, stud_name VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL, stud_grade CHAR(1) NOT NULL, stud_country VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL, course_id int NOT NULL );


create table course ( course_id serial PRIMARY KEY, course_name VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL );

Now, we will insert some data into the ‘course’ table by using the INSERT INTO statement as follows:

INSERT INTO course(course_name) VALUES ('Computer'), ('Mechanical'), ('Civil'), ('Electrical');

Illustrate the above INSERT statement’s result using the following SQL statement and snapshot.

select * from course;

INSERT INTO student(stud_name,stud_grade,stud_country,course_id) VALUES ('Smith','A','USA',1), ('Johnson','B','USA',2), ('Williams','C','USA',3), ('Jones','C','Canada',1), ('Brown','B','Canada',2), ('Davis','A','Canada',3), ('Aarnav','A','India',1), ('Aarush','B','India',2), ('Aayush','C','India',3), ('Abdul','C','UAE',1), ('Ahmed','A','UAE',3), ('Ying', 'A','China',1), ('Yue','B','China',2), ('Feng', 'C','China',3), ('Mian','C','South Korea',1), ('Fei','B','South Korea',2), ('Hong','A','South Korea',3);

Illustrate the above INSERT statement’s result using the following SQL statement and snapshot.

select * from student;

SELECT c.course_name AS "course name", s.stud_name AS "student name" FROM course c RIGHT JOIN student s ON c.course_id = s.course_id ORDER BY 1;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

We can concatenate the student names by using the STRING_AGG() function by modifying the above SQL statement as follows:

SELECT crs.course_name AS "course name", string_agg(stud.stud_name, ', ') AS "student list" FROM course crs JOIN student stud ON crs.course_id = stud.course_id GROUP BY 1 ORDER BY 1;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

SELECT  stud_grade, STRING_AGG(stud_name,', ') AS StudentsPerGrade FROM student GROUP BY stud_grade ORDER BY 1 ;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

In the above example, the resulting snapshot shows us the students concatenated by a comma separator with a similar grade obtained.

SELECT STRING_AGG(stud_name, ', ') AS "student_names", stud_country FROM student GROUP BY stud_country;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

In the above example, we observe that the code groups and concatenates all students from the same country, utilizing a comma separator.


We can control the order of the result by using the ORDER BY clause.

The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function returns the result in string format.

We can use the STRING_AGG() function to concatenate all strings and add a delimiter symbol or separator between them.

The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() supports various types of delimiter symbols or separators and does not include delimiter symbols or separators at the end of the string.


From the above article, we hope you understand how to use the PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function and how the PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function works. Also, we have added several examples of the PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function to understand it in detail.

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Uses Of Boron And Aluminium


Uses of Boron and Aluminium are mainly consists of applications in textile sector and in the preservation of wood. Boron is a very uncommon compound in this world because of the trace formation of stars and the big bang in the solar system. The Atomic number is five for boron in chemistry and the aluminium atomic number is thirteen.

Aluminium is available in igneous rocks as micas, feldspars and feldspathoids in form of aluminosilicate. The hydrate aluminium oxide is the primary element of bauxite from there aluminium is mainly formed. Boron is commonly found in nature as a form of boric acid and boric acid.

What is Boron?

Boron is a black colour element that is a lustrous metalloid, crystalline in nature. The compound’s chemical symbol is B and five is the atomic number of this element. The compound can alter its colour from black to brown at the time it was amorphous in the state.

The element has five protons and amount of neutrons is six and the number of electrons amount is five. Valence shells need some electrons and it also helps to create a covalent bond. The borax in mineral form, boron carbide and boric acid is formed from the reaction.

Boron: Structure

Boron consists of protons in the amount of five and all are charged positively. The neutrons quantity is six and they formed the nucleus of the compound. The elements of the electrons are surrounding around the cells and are available in the shells of electrons.

Figure 1: Atomic structure of Boron

The properties of the compound that are chemical and physical are stable for the electrons. The element can be found in the periodic table’s second number and the chemical group number is thirteen. The compound is available in block number P in the periodic table.

Boron: Properties

The chemical and physical properties are discussed below in detail.

The point of boiling of the element is 4275K and the element’s melting point is 2365K.

The potential of ionisation is -8.298eV and 10.811u is the atomic mass of the element.

The electronegativity of the element is 2.04.

The element can make two stable isotopes and they are 11B(19.9%) and 10B(80.1%).

The element’s rate of oxidation depends on the crystallinity, purity, temperature and size of the particular element. The element reacts in the presence of air and temperature in a proper way for reaction. The element is burning itself in the presence of temperature and boron trioxide is the result of the reaction.

Hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid are highly reactive with the elements with the crystalline form of the element. The elements slowly react with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid in concentrated form.

Boron: Usage

The element is used in various forms like, borates, borazine, boric acid etc. The usage of the elements is described below −

The element is utilized to obstruct the reaction between nitrate as well as aluminium and also obstruct the formation process of amide.

The compound is used to make glasses and ceramics.

Perborate is made from the element that is used majorly as a detergent.

The elements are used for margarine and fish preservation.

The elements are used in the textile sector and it also used in the preservation of wood.

Definition of Aluminium

Figure 2: Atomic structure of Aluminium

SM358, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The element is quite silvery in colour and the chemical number of the element is thirteen. The element can be found in nature in various forms but not in metal form. The element can be found in animal bodies, rocks and many more. The chemical name of this element is AI and the element’s name comes from the Latin word. The word alumen represents another form and that is called aluminium potassium sulphate. The chemical formula of the element is $mathrm{KAl(SO_2)_{212}H_2O}4$ and potash alum is another name for this element.

Aluminium: Properties

The element is made from a sixteen-kilometre crust of the earth with a concentrated state and keeps 8% weight at the time of its formation. The two compounds like, silicon and oxygen are the two elements that are close to aluminium. The properties of the elements are described below −

The power of the atom in the element is 13 and the weight of the atom is 26.9815384

The point of boiling is 2467 degrees and 2.70 is the gravity of the element.

The valence of the element is 3 and the chemical name is aluminium.

Aluminium: Usage

The usage of the element is described below −

The elements are used to produce foil, coil, cans and other packing materials.

The element is used for preparing bodies of cars, spacecraft, aircraft, cycles and many more.

The elements are also used for making home appliances.

The making of alloy that is used for coins is also made of aluminium.

The element is also used for preparing paints, wires and reflective surfaces.


Boron and aluminium are the main discussable things in the above article. Boron is a very uncommon element and five is the chemical number of the element. Aluminium is commonly used for producing home appliances and various purposes of industry. Both elements have very high commercial values and both use hugely for preparing daily usage and industry-related products. The properties of both elements are discussed in detail in the above article. The structure and uses are also discussed in the above article.


Q1. What is the main usage of the Amorphous boron?

Ans. The Amorphous boron is commonly used in the production of rocket oil where it acts as an igniter. In addition, they can also be used in the generation of pyrotechnic flares as they can give flares of distinctive green colours.

Q2. How Trihalides is formed?

Ans. Trihalides is formed as the result of the halogenation procedure. The reaction involved in the formulation of Trihalides is

$$mathrm{2B + 3Br_2:rightarrow:2BBr_3}$$

Q3. What are the elements needed for making aluminium?

Ans. The element is made with the help of bauxite and aluminium oxide. The other process is to apply aluminium oxide with 50% amount and bauxite in high quality.

How Google Uses Machine Learning?

In the last five years, data scientists have created data-crunching machines by using cutting-edge methodologies. Various machine learning models have been developed that help resolve challenging situations in the real world. With the growth in technologies, various services related to the public and government sectors are getting over the internet. It makes the process fast and the reach of services increases rapidly among the citizens.

Google is really making our life easy in every aspect. Whether it is from booking a taxi to finding a dentist near me, all these tasks can be done using the various services of Google. Have you ever wondered what is behind these services? How Google makes such personalized suggestions and recommendations. It uses various machine learning algorithms with the collected data from the user to make these things possible. But before knowing how Google uses machine learning algorithms, let us have a brief look over what machine learning is.

What is Machine Learning?

Machine Learning algorithms are defined as a method that is used by Artificial Intelligence models to provide an output on the basis of some given data as an input. It is a subset of Artificial Intelligence. Machine learning algorithms are basically classified into four types that are −

Supervised learning

Unsupervised learning

Semi-supervised learning

Reinforcement learning

How Google uses Machine Learning?

Now, let us see the various ways in which Google uses the Machine learning algorithm to perform various tasks using its different services.

Google Translate

The world is developing very fast. People from different countries and different communities travel around the globe for different purposes. And one of the major factors that defined one’s ethnicity is language. There are around 6500 languages worldwide. In India only, there are 24 different languages identified by the Indian government. The Google Translate feature by Google uses Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) to help a large number of people to translate texts into their own preferred language. This helps people in various aspects such as translating the website into their own language. Also, they can understand other written texts in their own language without any manual help. Tourists traveling in other countries use Google translate to establish communication with the locals of another country. The company does not claim to translate 100% correctly in all the languages but it is able to provide a clear generalized understanding to the users.

Google Photos

In today’s time, the media on any device whether it is mobile, laptop, etc is very essential part of daily life. People use various social media applications to show their status and images related to their lifestyle, and also they store many pictures for future use. All these need a good media manager. Google Photos by Google company helps a user store their pictures in the cloud. The user can access them anytime they want. There is also a backup option in Google Photos which makes your data safe and secure. Apart from these basic features, Photos by Google uses a machine learning algorithm to suggest some best pics from your travel album. It also sets a reminder notification for various timelines of your pictures. The pictures can be organized on the basis of face recognition, on the basis of location, etc.


As we know, there is a separate account for each individual using the Gmail Service by Google. The inbox, social, and promotional sections have different mail for each Gmail user. This is because Google uses the machine learning algorithm to filter these emails and send them to each user according to their search history, browser history over the system, and interest. The Gmail service uses labeled data that shows Gmail suggestions.

Apart from these promotional emails, the Gmail service by Google also uses a smart reply feature. The Gmail service uses machine learning algorithms to suggest quick replies according to the received text in the particular mail. The user can just do very instant replies using these suggestions and this saves their time. And the quick reply feature is not limited to only the English language, it is available in various languages such as Spanish, French, Portuguese, etc.

Google Assistant

Google Assistant is now provided by almost every android device. It helps a user to get the results from all over the internet by simply using the voice command. From finding the best restaurant to booking tickets for a movie, all can be done by using your voice. This helps a user to just get their work done without disturbing their current work. You can simply keep writing something on your laptop and use google assistant to get the news headlines of today using your voice command. Google uses the algorithm to catch your oral words and converts them into text then returns the output according to the text provided as voice input.

Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing is used by Google to extract the meaning and the structure of the provided text. This helps to get some meaningful information out of the texts. NLP is used by an organization to extract some data about a person, place, etc to better understand the trends over the internet. This will help the organization to make better suggestions for every service to a specific user. The various uses of Natural Language Processing are Content classification, document analysis, trend spotting, understanding the sentiments of a customer, etc. The Natural Language API developed by Google is used to perform natural language processing.

Map and Navigation

Using Google maps has become very common these days. Travelers use google maps to travel to unknown places. The delivery boys, cab drivers, etc use google maps extensively to reach the delivery location. Google maps use a machine learning algorithm to suggest the best route for the searched destination. Google map also shows the various levels of traffic in the route of that specific location. It shows an estimated time of arrival (ETA) on the basis of calculations based on traffic, distance, and mode of transport.

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Machine Learning algorithms are defined as a method that is used by Artificial Intelligence models to provide an output on the basis of some given data as an input.

The various uses of machine learning algorithms in Google services are Gmail, Google Assistant, Maps and Navigations, Natural Language Processing, etc.

Gmail service by Google also uses a quick reply feature. The Gmail service uses machine learning algorithms to suggest quick replies according to the received text in the particular mail.

The Google translate feature by Google uses Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) to help a large number of people to translate the language into their own preferred language.

Google map uses a machine learning algorithm to show an estimated time of arrival (ETA) on the basis of calculations based on traffic, distance, and mode of transport.

Qualcomm Snapdragon 710 Released With Flagship Grade Features, Better Isp And More

American giant, Qualcomm has just launched a brand new Mobile Platform and the first one in its newly announced Snapdragon 700-series of Mobile Platforms. The Snapdragon 710, as it is called is Qualcomm’s attempt at bringing some of the most in-demand premium features from chipsets like the Snapdragon 845 into a new tier of smartphones.

6x 1.7GHz (Cortex-A55)

GPU Adreno 616

DSP 3.0

ISP Spectra 250

3x20MHz CA, up to 4×4 MIMO on two carriers


As is visible from the spec sheet to anyone who is even mildly acquainted with the various ins and outs of Qualcomm’s chipsets, the Snapdragon 710 comes with a ton of features that come very close to what the company offers in its current flagship Mobile Platform — the Snapdragon 845.


The Snapdragon 710 comes with a dedicated multi-core AI engine that, according to Qualcomm, delivers up to 2x performance improvements in AI-based applications when compared to the Snapdragon 660. The Mobile Platform also uses heterogeneous computing using its big.LITTLE architecture that utilizes 2 high-powered Cortex-A75 cores, and 6 low-powered Cortex-A55 cores to run on-device AI applications quickly, and more efficiently.

Spectra 250 ISP

The Snapdragon 710 is the first Snapdragon processor (other than the Snapdragon 800-series) to feature the second-gen Spectra ISP. With the Spectra 250 ISP, the Snapdragon 710 can make full use of single 32MP sensors, or dual 20MP sensors. Plus, the ISP supports enhancements for low-light images.

In layman terms, the new ISP should mean better photos in smartphones that make use of the Snapdragon 710.

Adreno 616

With the new Adreno 616 GPU, the Snapdragon 710 can do a lot of things that were, until now, reserved for the flagship Snapdragon 800-series of processors, including 4K HDR playback. The Snapdragon 710 with its Adreno 616 GPU will not only let smartphones playback 4K HDR content, but will be able to do it with a 40% reduction in power consumption, as compared to the Snapdragon 660, which is the next best thing.


Obviously, this is not as fast as the Snapdragon 845, which, with its X20 LTE modem can achieve Gigabit downlink speeds, however, smartphones with the Snapdragon 710 will not only benefit from the new X15 modem but also the fact that the processor supports up to 4×4 MIMO for (what Qualcomm claims) up to 70% faster download speeds in weak connections.

The processor also supports Bluetooth 5.0 and comes with support for Qualcomm TrueWireless Stereo Plus which allows for usage of truly wireless earphones that don’t have a wire between the left and the right earbuds.


Obviously, with the smaller 10nm process (also the only chipset outside the Snapdragon 800-series to be built on a 10nm process), the Snapdragon 710 will offer a higher power efficiency than, say, the Snapdragon 660, which is built upon the older 14nm process.

The chipset also supports Qualcomm Quick Charge 4+ technology, that (according to Qualcomm) will let users get a 50% battery charge in just 15 minutes.

The Snapdragon 710 processor is already available for OEMs, and it’s just a matter of time before it is incorporated into smartphones. The company says that the Snapdragon 710 Mobile Platform will be found in devices launching towards the second quarter of 2023.

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